AAL has recently transported eight giant juice tanks safely on a single sailing from Taicang Port in China to Setúbal in Portugal, 50 kilometres south of Lisbon.  Carried on its 31,000 deadweight mega-size A-Class heavy lift vessel, AAL Kobe, and along its popular ‘Asia – Europe’ Trade Route, the cargo will be used in a vessel conversion at the Lisnave Shipyard.

The tanks were stowed on deck and extensive operational planning was required to address multiple operational challenges in the lifting and transport of these over-dimensional 150 tonne units, which each measured 12 metres x 12 metres x 16.5 metres and posed visibility restrictions on their journey. They were safely discharged at the Portuguese shipyard, where they will be installed into a bulk carrier, transforming the vessel into a fruit juice tanker.

Yahaya Sanusi, Deputy Head of Transport Engineering at AAL, commented, “We initially had to ensure that a specially designed lifting beam could in fact be aligned, connected, and lifted without mechanical support from the weather deck of the AAL Kobe to the tanks’ trunnions located at 12 metres’ height. Thanks to both the vessel’s outstanding crane height and tailormade lifting beam, we were able to stow the units successfully on deck.

“The goalposts then changed midway through the project, when our initial discharge to quayside plan was replaced by a more ambitious proposal, involving the discharge of the heavy lift units directly to the soon-to-be-converted bulk carrier. After extensive modelling and risk assessment by our engineering team, the original plan was reinstated. We also had to overcome a very shallow vessel draft and other operational restrictions at port of discharge using extensive modelling, bathymetric surveys, and tides, mooring, and risk analyses. This provided the data and operational transparency required for AAL to handle the tanks safely using only the ship cranes. All plans were carefully screened and approved by not only the local port authority, but also insurers and other project stakeholders.”

Christophe Grammare, AAL’s Managing Director, concluded, ‘With almost 95 percent of AAL’s fleet now owned and controlled by us, we can ensure that busy trade lanes – especially those that connect Asia, with key trading markets in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia – are served with the required frequency of sailings all year round. Additionally, we have boosted our engineering and operations capability across all key markets and time zones, and that is well demonstrated on this particular project, when rapidly changing operational criteria and local restrictions needed to be addressed at a local level and smartly.”


In advance of the launch next year of the first of AAL Shipping’s (AAL) mega size 32,000 deadweight (DWT) Super B-Class heavy lift vessels, the ‘AAL LIMASSOL’, the global carrier has released a short film highlighting the design and technical innovations and specifications that will make this highly anticipated third generation MPV fleet the most advanced in the multipurpose cargo sector.


The Super B-Class design was a collaboration between AAL’s engineering and commercial teams and sister company, Columbia Shipmanagement (CSM). These vessels were designed to be the most efficient and competent MPVs in the water and harness all of our engineering team’s expertise in handling heavy lift, breakbulk and dry bulk cargo since 1995.

Each Super B-Class vessel can safely accommodate over 42,000 CBM of cargo big and small on a single sailing. The significant clear weather deck space of 146 x 26 metres will feature a unique retractable deck extension system – the ‘AAL ECO-DECK’ and designed by AAL’s engineering team – that can increase stowage space even further.

With the bridge and accommodation block positioned forward, crews will have unobscured sailing visibility and no physical restriction on cargo height. The vessels can also sail with open hatch covers, enabling extremely tall and over-dimensional units to be stowed safely in hold space. And, despite significant cargo intake volume and 180m in length, the hull design of the Super B-Class will deliver a 6.5 metre minimum draft, allowing AAL to call far smaller and more remote ports – perfect for employment on dedicated large projects.

Three heavy lift cranes positioned along the vessels’ port side will feature 350t lift each and combinable up to 700t max. Tandem lifting can be done with both cranes number 1 and 2, and also number 2 and 3.  This enables cargo loading at both the fore and aft of the vessel – optimising deck space and capacity.  The cranes also feature an outreach of 35.7 metres at higher lifting capacity and render far more flexibility and options when loading large and / or heavy units.

Under deck there will be two box-shaped cargo holds, one 68 x 25 metres, and the other 38 x 25 metres and with a height of 15.6 metres. They also feature adjustable pontoon triple deck capabilities as required, to optimise cargo intake. With no centre line bulkhead, the holds are designed to perfectly accommodate dry bulk commodities and optimised for stowage of dangerous IMO cargoes.

Overall, the Super B-Class will meet the highest possible automation and emission standards, as well as complying with IMO regulations on emissions and sustainability for environmental protection. The vessels are dual fuel and methanol ready and run-on MAN main engines of 7,380 kW – supported by 2 x 1,700 kW and 1 x 1,065 kW auxiliary diesel generators. They are NOx Tier III compatible with HPSCR, EEDI phase 3 compliancy, featuring a projected service speed of 14.5 knots. They will also feature modern ballast water treatment systems and innovative hull coating that delivers greater fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions.

Five of the Super B-Class will be named after major breakbulk ports: AAL Antwerp, AAL Hamburg, AAL Houston, AAL Dubai and AAL Dammam. The sixth vessel (and first of the new fleet to be launched in 2024) will proudly bear the name AAL Limassol, in tribute to the town where AAL’s story first began in 1995.


In 2023, AAL Shipping (AAL), a global leader in the multipurpose project heavy lift shipping sector, celebrates the 25th anniversary of the establishment of ‘AAL China’. As China continues to see economic growth through its re-emergence from pandemic lock-down and its dual circulation policy, AAL remains committed to serving the Chinese market and multipurpose cargo stakeholders.

The carrier’s 25 years of own operations in China have seen it establish offices and teams of shipping professionals in Beijing and Qingdao, apart from its regional HQ in Shanghai. This development has coincided with the country’s economic rise. From the start of its period of reform and opening in 1978 until 2019, China saw an average annual growth of 9.5%, almost doubling the size of its economy every eight years and becoming the second-largest economy in the world in 2011.

Jack Zhou, General Manager of AAL China, Explained, ‘AAL started its shipping operations early 1995, providing a breakbulk, multipurpose liner service between South-East Asia and Papua New Guinea, Queensland and the Northern Territories of Australia. For over two decades, Shanghai has been our home port and number one for cargo calls – representing almost 18% of our export cargo volumes from China. Over the last decade alone, we have seen our Chinese export volumes grow by 240 percent and imports by 150 percent and in this period called Chinese ports close to 1,600 times.

‘In 1998, AAL opened its first representative office in Shanghai and we have never looked back – building a local service offering of scheduled monthly liner services and regular trade lanes that connect China with key trade partners across Asia, Middle East, Europe, the Americas and Oceania.’

Last year, China registered a trade surplus of US$877.6 billion, with a jump of 7% in exports and 1.1% in imports compared to 2021 and attests to its economic prominence on the world stage. During the recent pandemic, the Chinese government further proposed an economic policy of ‘dual circulation’. This strategy supports trade growth by placing equal emphasis on expanding exports (external circulation) and increased domestic demand, which will be driven primarily by rising consumption (internal circulation).

With the world economy so dependent upon geo-political stability, China faces challenges in depending solely on exports in 2023. As a result, the local government has emphasised the need to increase domestic demand, boost market confidence, shore up its export partner relationships and stabilise employment, growth, and prices.

Kyriacos Panayides, CEO of AAL added, ‘We are incredibly proud to be so well represented in China and our local team has done an outstanding job in understanding and addressing the ocean transport needs of our local customers and partners. As friend-shoring becomes a popular term among corporations in supply chain decision-making, AAL believes in maintaining a reliable local supply chain to serve the Chinese multipurpose and project heavy lift market while continuing to boost our seaborn trade volumes through the region.’

For 2023, institutional and market economists have varied forecasts for the size and timing of the Chinese economic rebound, but there is a very clear pattern of continuous growth. China recently set itself a 5% economic growth target for this year, close to the 5.2% predicted by Morgan Stanley, 5.2% by PwC, 4.9% by Bloomberg, 4.9% by JP Morgan and 4.5% by the IMF. The region’s trade surplus also grew to US$877.6 billion in 2022, with an increase in both exports and imports.

Panayides concluded, ‘With decades of strong investment, China has transformed into a supply chain behemoth, and has so much to offer the global multipurpose cargo sector and the dynamic industries it supports and we will continue to work closely with our local stakeholders to build our services and provide solutions for them. As AAL Shipping moves forward, it remains committed to serving the market and is optimistic about China’s economic prospects.


Today at the CSSC Huangpu Wenchong Shipyard in Guangzhou China, a traditional steel cutting ceremony took place for the first of AAL’s SIX new Super B-Class 32K DWT heavy lift MPVs, the ‘AAL Limassol’ – expected in the water 2024.

Representing AAL was our General Manager of AAL China, Jack Zhou and representing sister company, Columbia Shipmanagement (CSM), was Project Manager Rangel Vassilev. 

Our new Super B-Class heavy-lift fleet was designed by AAL’s own engineers in collaboration with sister company Columbia Shipmanagement and harnesses our vast experience in handling project heavy lift, breakbulk and dry bulk commodities around the world since 1995. These ‘mega-size’ vessels are 32,000 deadweight tonnes and measure 179.9 meters in overall length, with a beam of 30 meters. They have a depth of 15.5 meters and feature a low ballast draft of 6.5 meters. Each can carry up to 80,000 freight-tonnes of breakbulk cargo.

The weather deck provides 4,500 square meters of clear cargo loading space, with extendable pontoons available on the starboard side. Three port-mounted heavy lift cranes each support 350 tonnes, with tandem lifting of cranes 1 & 2 and 2 & 3 providing a 700-tonne maximum lift and an outreach of 35.7 meters. This allows to spread cargo loading to the fore and aft of the vessel, optimising stowage space and time. 

The forward-positioned bridge and accommodation block delivers unobscured sailing visibility, with no physical restriction on cargo height. Under deck, two large bulk-friendly cargo holds, with tripe-deck facility, measure 68 x 25 and 38 x 25 meters, with a height of 15.6 meters. And – whilst sailing with hatch covers open – can offer extremely tall cargoes safe accommodation.

The Super B-Class vessels are dual fuel compatible – equipped with 7,380-kilowatt main engines and two 1,600 and one 900-kilowatt auxiliary diesel generators. With new ballast water treatment and hull coating technologies, these vessels minimise CO2 emissions and meet all forthcoming IMO regulations.


The 31,000dwt ‘mega-size’ heavy lift vessel, ‘AAL Kobe’, transporting two heavy lift single-point mooring (SPM) Buoys along AAL Shipping’s (AAL) ‘Europe – Middle East / India – Asia Monthly Liner Service’ (EUMEIA), from Jebel Ali in Dubai to offshore anchorage in the Persian Gulf.

AAL loading a luxury superyacht weighing 200 tonnes at the Dubai port of Jebel Ali. The USD11 million yacht was loaded on AAL’s 19,000 dwt S-class vessel – the 19,000 DWT HL MPV ‘AAL Fremantle’ – which was operating on our ‘Europe, Middle East / India, Asia’ (EUMEIA) Monthly Liner Service. 
Breakbulk and project heavy lift carrier, AAL Shipping has delivered a cable carousel measuring 23 m in diameter (73 m circumference) to Taiwan.
The cargo was loaded in Jebel Ali and transported on deck of the 19,000 dwt heavy lift (HL) multipurpose vessel ‘AAL Nanjing’ to the project marshaling port Taichung.  

Since establishing its AAL Middle East representative office in Dubai in early 2015, AAL Shipping’s (AAL) commercial presence in the region has grown to the point that the carrier is operating at least one scheduled multipurpose heavy lift cargo sailing through the region each month (via its Europe, Middle East / India, Asia Liner Service), with additional tramp sailings in support of customer demand. Connecting the Middle East with these markets and developing trades with Southeast Asia, the US and Africa, AAL is expanding its local capabilities with the promotion of Karim Smaili to General Manager – Middle East and the appointment of a Cargo Superintendent, Denis Elmanov, to oversee its local project cargo operations.

Karim Smaili, General Manager of AAL Middle East commented, ‘The Middle East has witnessed significant economic diversification and expansion of its industrial trade relations and capabilities over the past few years. The region is not only importing project cargo to meet local need but also exporting steel and locally fabricated project heavy lift components. We are also seeing trade lanes expand and develop with Southeast Asia, Africa and the US strengthening ties on the back of widespread international reengagement with the region and geo-political uncertainty surrounding other areas of the world. With our well-established trade routes connecting all these regions, we can provide the global ocean transport solutions needed.’

He added, ‘AAL’s growth within this highly competitive market can be attributed to the regularity of our sailings, dependability of service and flexibility of our cargo operations – especially with the complex cargoes we often carry and the challenges of the market and in-port operations before and during the pandemic. As well as already operating monthly liner sailings on the busy trade From Europe to Asia via the Middle East and India, we are also looking at westbound sailings from Asia to the Mediterranean and Continent calling India and the Persian Gulf en route.

AAL’s Managing Director, Christophe Grammare, concluded, ‘A strong and well-established local presence is important to helping us deliver the service standards that the market has come to expect from AAL – especially considering that the economic outlook for the Middle East and its multipurpose cargo trade is very positive.

‘The region will continue to be a beneficiary of inward investment from companies looking for stability in energy costs and availability – so infrastructure is planned to support that development. There are also power generation, oil and gas and other industrial projects coming into focus and, with Cop28 taking centre stage in the UAE (November 2023), there will be more attention paid to the expansion of renewable energy infrastructure and sustainability projects like smart cities. These developments, along with ongoing social changes are indicative of reforms throughout the Middle East to expand and diversify its economy and international trade and AAL is incredibly happy to be on the frontline to support that.’


AAL’s scheduled monthly ‘Asia to Australia West Coast Liner Service’ (AUWC) recently provided the perfect solution for global project logistics provider NMT and its client, industrial engineering giant Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions. The operation involved the transport of 20,000 freight tonnes of fabricated break-bulk reclaimer components from Henderson to Port Hedland in Western Australia – infrastructure that will uplift the port capacity of an iron ore mining facility in Nelson Point. The lift, stowage and transport of these units – the largest of which was the bucketwheel boom at just under 65 metres long – was undertaken by the crew of the AAL Nanjing, working in close cooperation with AAL’s transport engineers who had been planning the operation since the start of the year.

AAL’s Head of Transport Engineering, Nicola Pacifico explained, ‘Due to the large and unconventional size of the reclaimer components, which covered a total area on the vessel of more than 1,800 square meters, the lifting and stowage challenges were significant. The seven-month design and planning period for the operation involved AAL working alongside NMT and Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions’ project management team, engaged in weekly online meetings from early February. The collaboration proved successful, and the cargo was safely discharged in Port Hedland on schedule for onward transport to Nelson Point, where it will be used in the handling of iron ore.’

Jayme Bailey, Senior Project Manager at NMT Global Project Logistics, stated ‘our collaborative, team-oriented and hands-on approach proved a winning recipe for all stakeholders on this important project. Buy-in from our trusted service providers and a shared willingness to go the extra mile ensured the project was executed without issue, on-time and more importantly, on budget.’

Frank Mueller, General Manager of AAL Australia concluded, ‘We are delighted to continue our strong track record for NMT and Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, both of whom we are proud to have worked with in the past on domestic industrial projects across Australia.

‘The local multipurpose shipping market is still challenging since COVID, with port disruptions and labour issues affecting schedules and normal operations. The Australian project sector itself has also experienced upheaval and will continue to weather difficult external conditions until a possible peak of investment of $A95 billion per annum in planned infrastructure between 2023-24 and 2025-26. We will therefore continue to ensure our services within the sector remain consistent and keep delivering for our customers despite any and all market challenges.’


Increasing its coverage of key Southeast Asian Markets, AAL Shipping (AAL) is adding Thailand and Singapore to is long-standing Asia to West Coast Australia Liner service (AUWC). 

The service was also recently bolstered with the addition of a third vessel – a 19,000dwt heavy lift multipurpose ship, the S-Class AAL Bangkok. This additional tonnage will not only increase cargo capacity but also enable a 25-day frequency on the service – ensuring that AAL customers continue to enjoy the most comprehensive and reliable scheduled breakbulk service from Asia into Western Australia. 

The new port calls will commence January 2023 with the AAL Gunsan voyage 23001, as reflected on AAL’s weekly liner service schedule available here: Sailings & Schedules – AAL (aalshipping.com)

For queries or freight inquiries, please contact us today at: Chartering@aalshipping.com


AAL was the proud headline sponsor of the world’s top transport journalist awards, held in London on Wednesday 7th December 2022. The Seahorse Freight Association Journalist Awards, in partnership with AAL Shipping, celebrate the best journalism in supply chain, logistics, and transport, as well as recognising individuals who have gone above and beyond to represent the industry.

In front of an audience of over 200 top journalists from around the world, our company not only helped to organise the event, but opened the awards on the night with a speech from John Pittalis and presented the ‘Multipurpose Cargo Journalist of the Year 2022’ award to Sophie Barnes of HLPFI (collecting on behalf magazine Editor, Dave Kershaw). AAL’s ties to these awards go back to 2015.

Winners of the judged awards each received a cash prize, as well as being recognised on the night. The Seahorse Awards are open globally to any reporter, freelancer, or editor in the industry and aim to celebrate great journalism. The 12 award categories included: Journalist of the Year; Maritime Journalist of the Year; Supply Chain Journalist of the Year; Multipurpose Cargo Logistics Journalist of the Year; and Lifetime Achievement.


Renewable energy developer RES Australia has reached a major milestone in the construction of the 180MW Dulacca wind farm in Queensland’s southwest, with the installation of the last of the project’s 43 turbines – the components of which were loaded in China and shipped to the site by AAL Shipping (AAL).

RES has marked the occasion with a snapshot of the final huge turbine standing in place at the project site in Queensland’s Western Downs region. The V150-4.2MW wind turbines, supplied and installed by Vestas and carried by AAL, are said to be the tallest installed in Australia, at nearly 250 metres from base to tip.  RES says construction of the project is expected to be completed in the second half of 2023.

Between February and July 2022, AAL operated a series of shipments between China and Brisbane to transport heavy lift and project cargo components for the 181MW Dulacca Wind Farm. Employed by multiple global logistics companies, AAL’s shipments comprised all 43 Vestas wind turbines (towers and blades), transformers, electrical cables and other – a total of close to 375,000 freight tonnes (FRT) of cargo.

Andrew Mangan, Chartering Manager at AAL commented, ‘The shipments into Brisbane for Dulacca were loaded in several Chinese ports including Tianjin, Taicang and Yangzhou and we worked with multiple logistics companies in their execution, each with their own specific timeline and cargo requirements. We therefore utilised two different vessel classes on the project, our ‘mega-size’ 31,000 deadweight (DWT) A-Class and the more compact 19,000 DWT S-Class – to manage both large and small shipment sizes with as much efficiency and economy of scale for our customers as possible.’

Chris Yabsley, Chartering Manager at AAL Australia, added, ‘The wind farm will generate enough clean energy to power 124,000 homes and inject over AUD 400m into the local economy. The award of this project was a welcome recognition of AAL’s long-standing ‘Asia – Australia’ trade lane and expertise, which has served customers with a regular scheduled service for over 27 years. We are proud to be part of such an important local project and help to expand the use of sustainable green energy solutions in the country.’


The pair were recognised in the Bulk & Specialised Shipping category for their partnership on a tug recovery operation in Devonport, Tasmania, this year

Singapore, 18 November 2022: AAL Shipping (AAL) has been named joint winner in the DCN Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry awards 2022, together with partner United Salvage, for their collaboration on the complex retrieval of two sunken tugs from the Mersey River in Devonport, Tasmania.

The Bulk & Specialised Shipping trophy was given in recognition of the pair’s combined efforts in recovering the tugs, weighing 420 tonnes and 455 tonnes respectively, which had been sunk by a cement carrier at the start of the year.

AAL’s 31,000DWT 700-tonne heavy lift vessel, the AAL Melbourne, was enlisted for the lifting operation and onward shipment of the tugs to Brisbane after previous salvage attempts were unsuccessful.

Following months of careful planning and modelling, and collaboration with key stakeholders including United Salvage, TasPorts, and cargo insurers, the recovery was completed in August.

Guests at the Awards, held in Melbourne last week, heard that in January 2022 two tugs in the port of Devonport were sunk after being hit by a cement carrier, creating a major environmental and pollution hazard, as well as blocking normal port operations and vessel movement.

AAL Shipping’s heavy lift vessel the AAL Melbourne – and United Salvage as the salvage and environmental support specialist – worked in tandem with various stakeholders including TasPorts to complete an intensive oil spill recovery followed by a complex salvage operation of the two sunken tugs.

“This win recognises the impressive and determined combined efforts of AAL and United Salvage in completing one of the Australia’s most complex salvage operations,” said Frank Mueller, General Manager, AAL Australia.

“United Salvage originally planned to use a floating crane and barge to recover these tugs, however, once we demonstrated that our A-Class vessel could not only recover the tugs but also transport them back up the East Coast for delivery to Brisbane, it was clear that AAL would be the perfect partner.”

The award was accepted by Drew Shannon, Managing Director, United Salvage, Melwyn Noronha, Chief Executive Officer of Shipping Australia and one of the judges on the panel during the awards ceremony in Melbourne, Australia.

The Bulk & Specialised Shipping award is open to all sectors involved in the process chain that handle bulk, breakbulk and project heavy lift cargoes.


AAL Shipping (AAL) has undertaken a salvage operation to remove two tugs from the Mersey River in Devonport on the north-west coast of Tasmania that had been sunk by a cement carrier in January. Chosen for the job was the 31,000DWT 700 tonne heavy lift vessel, the AAL Melbourne, and involved the lifting of the tugs and their onward shipment along the East Coast to Brisbane. New South Wales based emergency response, salvage and environmental support specialist, United Salvage, engaged AAL to supply a vessel from its longstanding ‘Asia to Australia East Coast Liner Service’.

The first tug, the 420 tonne York Cove was carefully pulled out of the Mersey on Sunday 7th August by the AAL Melbourne using her two port-mounted cranes working in tandem – the tug having had large holes cut into her hull to allow trapped water and sediment to drain. The second tug, the 455 tonne Campbell Cove, was recovered and loaded onto the AAL Melbourne a few days later. Both tugs were securely lashed to the weather deck of the ‘mega size’ vessel in preparation for their onward shipment to Brisbane and utilising specifically designed cradles loaded previously in Burnie.

Chris Yabsley, Chartering Manager at AAL Australia commented, ‘United Salvage originally planned to use a floating crane and barge to recover these tugs. However, once we demonstrated that our A-Class vessel could not only recover the tugs but also transport them back up the East Coast for delivery to Brisbane, it was clear that AAL would be the perfect partner.’

Nicola Pacifico, Head of Transport Engineering at AAL, explained, ‘The recovery was carefully planned and modelled over several months and involved collaboration with several key stakeholders including United Salvage, TasPorts and cargo insurers. Even the Australia Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) was required to confirm our calculations with our ship’s class (DNV).

Chris Yabsley
Chartering Manager
(AAL Australia)


AAL Shipping (AAL) successfully collaborated on the disassembly of Berth 2 at Hay Point Coal Terminal in Queensland and its subsequent shipment to Henderson, Western Australia for disposal. Comprising seven packages with a total weight of 1,412MT / 8,929CBM, the cargo was moved in a single sailing onboard the 19,000 deadweight S-Class 700 tonne max heavy lift vessel, the AAL Fremantle, for global logistics provider, Geodis Australia.

Nicola Pacifico, Head of Transport Engineering at AAL explained, ‘All aspects of the loading operation were extensively evaluated and planned – starting with the mooring of the AAL Fremantle to the old Berth itself where she was heavily exposed to wind, waves, current, tide and vessel motion. These conditions needed to be factored into the lifting methodology along with load spreading and cargo sea fastening. Having multiple contractors and authorities working simultaneously required the development of complex risk assessments and mitigation, emergency procedures and a coordination matrix to ensure that every stage was delivered to highest safety standards.’

‘Due to the complex nature of the lifting operation, we sent a Project Engineer and Cargo Superintendent from Singapore to oversee the loading and stowage operation – monitoring works throughout the unpredictable weather conditions we faced. The level of engineering and operational oversight that AAL provided was not only crucial to reducing risk, down-time, and operational costs, but provided our customer and stakeholders a high level of reassurance of a positive outcome – which we ultimately delivered.’

Ben Williams, Project Manager of Project Logistics at Geodis Australia, added, ‘This was a complex and demanding project shipment and required a huge effort from Geodis and AAL’s team, collaborating to execute safely and efficiently. Transporting heavy lift berth and shiploader components from Hay Point to Henderson required regular pre-planning meetings – not to mention constant onsite dialogue with AAL representatives who travelled from Singapore to oversee works. It was the first time that a heavy lift vessel had performed such an operation there and AAL’s solution was executed flawlessly.’